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THE MERCHANT SHIPPING CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

No 81-FZ of April 30, 1999

Adopted by the State Duma on March 31, 1999

Chapter I. GENERAL PROVISIONS


Article 1. Relations regulated by the Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation
Article 2. The notion of merchant shipping
Article 3. Scope of application of regulations set out in this Code
Article 4. Carriage and towage between seaports of the Russian Federation
Article 5. State control of merchant shipping
Article 6. State supervision of merchant shipping
Article 7. Vessel
Article 8. Shipowner
Article 9. Seaports. Port authorities
Article 10. Vessels tonnage
Article 11. Unit of account

Chapter II. VESSEL


1. OWNERSHIP OF VESSEL

Article 12. Holders of right of ownership of vessels
Article 13. Rights of the owner of a vessel
Article 14. Transfer of a vessel in trust administration

2. FLAG AND NATIONALITY OF VESSEL

Article 15. Right to fly the State Flag of the Russian Federation
Article 16. Genesis of the right to fly the State Flag of the Russian Federation
Article 17. Nationality of vessel
Article 18. Loss of the right to fly the State Flag of the Russian Federation
Article 19. Temporary transfer of the vessel under the flag of a foreign state

3. VESSEL IDENTIFICATION

Article 20. Name of vessel
Article 21. Call signs

4. TECHNICAL SURVEY OF VESSELS AND SHIP PAPERS

Article 22. Authorities for the technical survey and classification of vessels
Article 23. Technical survey of vessels
Article 24. Classification of vessels
Article 25. Basic ship papers
Article 26. Additional ship papers
Article 27. Ship papers for some categories of vessels
Article 28. Ship papers for vessels of foreign voyage
Article 29. Authorities issuing ship papers
Article 30. Recognition of ship papers of a vessel flying a foreign flag
Article 31. Requirements relating to ship papers
Article 32. Rules of keeping ship papers. Storage of the ships log

Chapter III. REGISTRATION OF VESSELS AND RIGHTS TO VESSELS


Article 33. Registers of ships of the Russian Federation
Article 34. Vessels used only for government non-commercial service
Article 35. Authorities carrying out registration of vessels
Article 36. Registration fees
Article 37. Conditions of registration of a vessel
Article 38. The registration of a vessel in the bareboat charter register of ships
Article 39. Information subject to be entered in the State Register of Ships or a ship book
Article 40. Information subject to be entered in the bareboat charter register of ships
Article 41. Obligation to notify about changes of information entered in registers of ships
Article 42. Initial registration of a vessel in the State Register of Ships or a ship book
Article 43. Change of the port (place) of registration
Article 44. Re-registration of a vessel
Article 45. Loss of a vessel's papers confirming registration of it
Article 46. Refusal to register a vessel and the rights to it
Article 47. Deregistration of a vessel from the State Register of Ships or a ship book
Article 48. Missing vessel
Article 49. Vessel constructively wrecked
Article 50. Open nature of registers of ships
Article 51. Responsibility for violation of the regulations on the registration of vessels

Chapter IV. VESSEL'S CREW. MASTER OF VESSEL


1. VESSEL'S CREW

Article 52. Vessels crew complement
Article 53. Minimum complement of vessel's crew
Article 54. Licensing of vessel's crew
Article 55. Requirements to the state of health of persons admitted to work on board a vessel
Article 56. Citizenship of a vessel's crew members
Article 57. Labour relations on board a vessel
Article 58. Repatriation of a vessel's crew members
Article 59. Property of a crew member of a vessel
Article 60. Duties of shipowner

2. MASTER OF VESSEL

Article 61. Management of the vessel and other duties of the master
Article 62. Obligation to render assistance to any person in distress at sea
Article 63. Obligation to render assistance upon a collision of vessels
Article 64. Obligation of the master to render urgent medical aid
Article 65. Obligation of the master in event of an act of waror in other cases of military danger
Article 66. Abandonment of the vessel by its crew
Article 67. Maintenance of order on the vessel
Article 68. Interrelationship between the master or other members of the vessel's crew and consulates of the Russian Federation
Article 69. The master as an authority of inquest
Article 70. Duties of the master in cases of making a will, birth of a child or death on board the vessel
Article 71. The master as the representative of the shipowner and cargo owner
Article 72. Urgent need for money for continuation of the voyage
Article 73. Charging the chief mate with the duties of the master

Chapter V. PORT STATE CONTROL

Article 74. Harbour master of a seaport
Article 75. Subordination of the harbour master of a seaport
Article 76. Functions of the harbour master of a seaport and the harbour master of a fishing seaport
Article 77. Functions of harbour masters of specialized seaports
Article 78. Orders of the harbour master of a seaport
Article 79. Supervision of vessels
Article 80. Permit for a vessel to leave the seaport
Article 81. Detention of a vessel and cargo by port authorities
Article 82. Construction in navigational area
Article 83. Engagement of vessels in salvage of people or vessels
Article 84. Responsibility for violation of the regulations on safe navigation and order in port

Chapter VI. MARITIME PILOTS


1. PILOTAGE

Article 85. Scope of application of regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 86. Purposes of pilotage
Article 87. Maritime pilots
Article 88. State supervision of the activities of pilotage organizations
Article 89. Establishment of areas of compulsory and optional pilotage
Article 90. Compulsory pilotage
Article 91. Optional pilotage
Article 92. Execution of public duties by a pilot

2. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PILOT AND THE MASTER

Article 93. Pilot license
Article 94. Ensuring safe embarkation and safe disembarkation of the pilot
Article 95. Statement of the vessel's data by the master
Article 96. Interrelationship between the master and the pilot
Article 97. Pilot's orders to the helmsman
Article 98. Temporary leaving bridge by the master
Article 99. Suspension of pilotage by the pilot
Article 100. Leaving the vessel by the pilot
Article 101. Return of the pilot
Article 102. Liability of the pilot and the master

3. LIABILITY FOR IMPROPER PILOTAGE. PILOTAGE FEE

Article 103. Liability for improper pilotage
Article 104. Limitation of liability and loss of the right to limit liability
Article 105. Liability to third parties
Article 106. Pilotage fee

Chapter VII. SUNKEN PROPERTY


Article 107. Scope of application of regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 108. Raising of sunken property by its owner
Article 109. Obligation of the owner of sunken property to raise the sunken property
Article 110. Rights of the owner to sunken property
Article 111. Raising, removal or destruction of sunken property by port authorities
Article 112. Claiming of sunken property by its owner
Article 113. Right of port authorities to full compensation for costs incurred
Article 114. Sunken property raised accidentally

Chapter VIII. CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA


1.GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 115. Definitions and types of contracts of carriage of goods by sea
Article 116. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 117. Form of contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 118. Long-term contract for arrangement of carriage of goods by sea and its correlation with a contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 119. Correlation between a charter-party and a bill of lading
Article 120. Contents of a charter-party
Article 121. Assignment of rights by a charter-party
Article 122. Application of regulations set out in this Chapter to carriage of goods in cabotage
Article 123. Temporary cessation or restriction on receipt of goods for carriage

2. BRINGING UP OF VESSEL AND LOADING OF GOODS

Article 124. Seaworthiness of the vessel
Article 125. Substitute of vessel
Article 126. Port of loading
Article 127. Place of loading of the goods
Article 128. Time for bringing up the vessel
Article 129. Notice of the vessels readiness for loading
Article 130. Lay time
Article 131. Demurrage time
Article 132. Payment for demurrage time
Article 133. Remuneration for early completion of loading
Article 134. The right of a carrier to set the vessel for sail upon the expiry of demurrage time
Article 135. Compensation for losses caused by delaying the vessel
Article 136. Early departure of the vessel upon the demand of the charterer
Article 137. Removal of extraneous goods
Article 138. Deck cargo
Article 139. Packing and marking of goods
Article 140. Replacement of Goods
Article 141. Cargo documents

3. BILL OF LADING

Article 142. Issuance of bill of lading
Article 143. The issuance of another document instead of a bill of lading
Article 144. Contents of bill of lading
Article 145. Reservations to bill of lading. Evidentiary effect of bill of lading
Article 146. Types of bill of lading
Article 147. Plurality of bill of lading copies
Article 148. Handing over of bill of lading
Article 149. Right of disposition of goods

4. PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

Article 150. Duties of the carrier in respect of goods
Article 151. Dangerous Goods
Article 152. Time and route for carriage of goods
Article 153. Bar of the vessel's call at the port of destination

5. TERMINATION OF OBLIGATIONS UNDER A CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

Article 154. Denial by the carrier to perform the contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 155. Denial by the shipper or charterer to perform the contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 156. Denial by each parties to perform the contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 157. Termination of the contract of carriage of goods by sea due to impossibility to perform it

6. DISCHARGE AND RELEASE OF THE GOODS

Article I58. Person entitled to receive goods
Article 159. Placing goods in storage
Article 160. Payments on release of the goods to the consignee. Right of retention of the goods
Article 161. Survey of goods or inspection of their condition
Article 162. Statement of loss of or damage to the goods

7. FREIGHT

Article 163. Payments for carriage of goods
Article 164. Amount of Freight
Article 165. Freight for goods lost during carriage

8. LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER, SHIPPER OR CHARTERER

Article 166. Liability of the carrier
Article 167. Navigational error
Article 168. Exoneration of the carrier from liability against evidence of safety of the goods
Article 169. Calculation of the amount of liability of carrier for loss of or damage to goods
Article 170. Limitation of liability of the carrier
Article 171. Claims to the carrier, his servants and agents
Article 172. Loss of right to limit liability
Article 173. Liability of the actual carrier
Article 174. Through carriage of goods
Article 175. Agreement to exonerate the carrier from liability or reduction of the limits of his liability
Article 176. Liability of the shipper and charterer

Chapter IX. CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF PASSENGER BY SEA


Article 177. Definition of a contract of carriage of a passenger by sea
Article 178. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 179. Documents of carriage
Article 180. Luggage and cabin luggage
Article 181. Passenger's fare and payment for the carriage of his luggage
Article 182. Periods of carriage of a passenger
Article 183. Refusal by the passenger from the contract of carriage of a passenger by sea
Article 184. Refusal by the carrier from the contract of carriage of a passenger by sea
Article 185. Modification of a contract of carriage of a passenger by Sea
Article 186. Liability of the carrier
Article 187. Performing carrier
Article 188. Loss of and damage to valuables
Article 189. Intent or grave negligence of a passenger
Article 190. Limits of liability of the carrier
Article 191. Increase in the limits of liability of the carrier
Article 192. Application of the limits of liability
Article 193. Loss of the right to limit liability
Article 194. Notice of loss of or damage to luggage
Article 195. Agreement to exonerate the carrier from liability or reduce the limits of his liability
Article 196. Liability of the carrier for delay of the vessel's departure or late arrival
Article 197. Scope of application of the regulations set out in this Chapter

Chapter X. CONTRACT OF CHARTERING VESSEL FOR A TIME (TIME CHARTER)


Article 198. Definitions of a time charter
Article 199. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 200. Contents of a time charter
Article 201. Time charter form
Article 202. Sub-time charter
Article 203. Seaworthiness of a vessel
Article 204. Duties of a charterer in the commercial use of the vessel and the return of it
Article 205. Liability of the charterer to the cargo owner
Article 206. Subordination of the vessel's crew members
Article 207. Exoneration of the charterer from liability for losses caused by salvage, wreckage or damage to the vessel
Article 208. Payment of freight
Article 209. Wreck of the vessel and payment of freight
Article 210. Reward for rendering salvage services

Chapter XI. CONTRACT FOR CHARTERING A VESSEL WITHOUT CREW (BAREBOAT CHARTER)


Article 211. Definition of a bareboat charter
Article 212. Application of regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 213. Contents of a bareboat charter
Article 214. Bareboat charter Form
Article 215. Sub-bareboat charter
Article 216. Seaworthiness of a vessel
Article 217. Vessel's crew
Article 218. Duties of the charterer in operation of the vessel and the return of it
Article 219. Liability of the charterer to third parties
Article 220. Losses caused by salvage, wreck of or damage to the vessel
Article 221. Payment of freight to the shipowner
Article 222. Inadmissibility of withdrawal of the vessel
Article 223. Redemption of the vessel
Article 224. Liability for defects of the redeemed vessel

Chapter XII. TOWAGE CONTRACT


Article 225. Definition of the towage contract
Article 226. Application of regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 227. Form of the towage contract
Article 228. Duties of parties to the towage contract
Article 229. Liability in marine towage
Article 230. Liability in port towage
Article 231. Liability in towage in ice-covered waters

Chapter XIII. CONTRACT OF MARINE AGENCY


Article 232. Definition of the contract of marine agency
Article 233. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 234. Limitation of general powers of the marine agent
Article 235. Actions of the marine agent in the interests of different parties
Article 236. Contract of marine sub-agency
Article 237. Rights and duties of the marine agent
Article 238. Duties of the shipowner
Article 239. Termination of contract of marine agency

Chapter XIV. CONTRACT OF MARINE BROKERAGE


Article 240. Definition of the contract of marine brokerage
Article 241. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 242. Marine broker performing marine agents actions
Article 243. Actions of the marine broker in interests of both parties
Article 244. Remuneration for services of a marine broker
Article 245. The marine broker's duty to report

Chapter XV. CONTRACT OF MARINE INSURANCE


Article 246. Definition of the contract of marine insurance
Article 247. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 248. Form of the contract of marine insurance
Article 249. Objects of marine insurance
Article 250. Information on risks
Article 251. Insurance policy and terms of insurance
Article 252. Insurance premium
Article 253. Beneficiary
Article 254. Duties of the insured or the beneficiary
Article 255. Rights of the insured under the contract of marine insurance to the benefit of the beneficiary
Article 256. Production of the insurance policy at the time of payment of an insurance indemnity
Article 257. Effects of an alienation of insured cargo
Article 258. Effects of an alienation of an insured vessel
Article 259. Insured amount
Article 260. Double insurance
Article 261. Occurrence of losses prior to the conclusion of the contract of marine insurance or absence of them
Article 262. General insurance policy
Article 263. Information on cargo
Article 264. Insurance policies or insurance certificates of separate shipments of cargo
Article 265. Intent or grave negligence of the insured or beneficiary
Article 266. Exoneration of the insurer from liability in insurance of a vessel
Article 267. Exoneration of the insurer from liability in insurance of cargo
Article 268. Exoneration of the insurer from liability in insurance of freight
Article 269. Losses due to a nuclear incident
Article 270. Losses due to act of war or other acts
Article 271. Effects of a change in risks
Article 272. Prevention or minimizing of losses
Article 273. Securing by the insurer of general average contributions
Article 274. Protection of the insurer's interests when drawing up an average statement
Article 275. Compensation for the insured's expenses
Article 276. Liability of the insurer in excess of the insured amount
Article 277. A missing vessel
Article 278. Abandonment
Article 279. Notice of abandonment
Article 280. Return of insurance indemnity
Article 281
Article 282. Transfer of documents and evidence to the insurer
Article 283. Effects of indemnification for losses by third parties

Chapter XVI. GENERAL AVERAGE


Article 284. Notion of general average and principles of its adjustment
Article 285. Application of the regulations set out in this Chapter
Article 286. General average caused by a vessel calling at a place of refuge
Article 287. Cost of handling on board or discharging or transhipment of cargo, fuel or stores
Article 288. Temporary repairs to a vessel
Article 289. Expenses caused by a delay of the vessel for reasons of the common safety
Article 290. Effects of the condemnation of a vessel as being unfit for navigation or refusal of a vessel to continue its voyage
Article 291. General Average caused by expenses on salvage
Article 292. General average caused by taking salvage measures
Article 293. Expenditure caused by measures undertaken to prevent or minimize damage to the environment
Article 294. Losses arising out of loss of or damage to cargo, fuel or stores
Article 295. Losses arising out of loss of freight
Article 296. Replacement expenses
Article 297. Losses not allowed as general average (particular average)
Article 298. Losses from damage caused to the vessel, its machinery and equipment
Article 299. "New for old" deductions
Article 300. Losses arising out of the loss of a vessel
Article 301. Losses arising from the loss of or damage to cargo
Article 302. Provision of funds for compensation of general average disbursements
Article 303. Interest on losses made good in general average
Article 304. Contributory value of property
Article 305. Average statement and average adjusters
Article 306. Evidence and documents for making up an average statement
Article 307. Duty for making up an average statement
Article 308. Amending and challenging an average statement
Article 309. Execution of an average statement

Chapter XVII. COMPENSATION FOR DAMAGES CAUSED BY COLLISION OF VESSELS


Article 310. Scope of application of the regulations set out by this Chapter
Article 311. Circumstances precluding liability
Article 312. Fault of one of the vessels in a collision
Article 313. Fault of two or more vessels in a collision
Article 314. Fault of a pilot in the collision of vessels
Article 315. Presumption of innocence of vessels

Chapter XVIII. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE OF OIL POLLUTION FROM VESSELS


Article 316. Grounds for liability of the vessel's owner
Article 317. Exoneration of the owner of the vessel from liability
Article 318. Intent or grave negligence of the person who suffered the damage
Article 319. Joint and several liability of owners of two or more vessels
Article 320. Limitation of liability of a vessel's owner
Article 321. Loss of the right of limitation of liability
Article 322. Liability limitation fund
Article 323. Insurance or other financial security of liability
Article 324. Certificate of insurance or other financial security of civil liability for pollution damage
Article 325. Claim for compensation for pollution damage

Chapter XIX. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE IN CONNECTION WITH THE CARRIAGE OF HAZARDOUS AND NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES BY SEA


Article 326. Scope of application of the regulations set out by this Chapter
Article 327. Grounds for liability of a vessel's owner
Article 328. Exoneration of the owner of the vessel from liability
Article 329. Intent or grave negligence of the person who suffered the damage
Article 330. Joint and several liability of owners of two or more vessels
Article 331. Limitation of liability of the vessel's owner
Article 332. Loss of the right to limit liability
Article 333. Liability limitation fund
Article 334. Insurance or other financial security of liability
Article 335. Certificate of insurance or other financial security of civil liability for damage caused by hazardous and noxious substances
Article 336. Claim for compensation for damage

Chapter XX. SALVAGE OF VESSELS AND OTHER PROPERTY


Article 337. Scope of application of the regulations set out by this Chapter
Article 338. Salvage contracts
Article 339. Nullity of contracts or their modification
Article 340. Duties of the salvor, the shipowner and the master of the vessel
Article 341. Conditions for reward
Article 342. Criteria for fixing the reward
Article 343. Special compensation
Article 344. Apportionment of the reward between salvors
Article 345. Apportionment of the reward between the ship owner and crew of the vessel
Article 346. Salvage of life
Article 347. Services rendered under existing contracts
Article 348. The effects of salvors misconduct
Article 349. Prohibition of salvage operations
Article 350. Vessels belonging to the same shipowner
Article 351. Duty to provide security for salvor's claim
Article 352. Interim payment
Article 353. Salvage operations controlled by public authorities

Chapter XXI. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR MARITIME CLAIMS


Article 354. Persons entitled to limit liability
Article 355. Claims subject to limitation of liability
Article 356. Exceptions from the scope of limitation of liability
Article 357. Conduct barring limitation of liability
Article 358. Counterclaim
Article 359. General limits of liability
Article 360. Limit of liability for passenger claims
Article 361. Aggregation of claims
Article 362. Limitation of liability without constitution of a liability limitation fund
Article 363. Constitution of a liability limitation fund
Article 364. Distribution of the liability limitation fund
Article 365. Bar to other actions
Article 366. Scope of application of the regulations set out by this Chapter

Chapter XXII. MARITIME LIEN ON A VESSEL. MORTGAGE ON A VESSEL OR A VESSEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION


1. MARITIME LIEN ON A VESSEL

Article 367. Claims secured by a maritime lien on a vessel
Article 368. Priority of claims secured by maritime lien on a vessel
Article 369. Ranking of claims secured by maritime lien on a vessel
Article 370. Characteristics of maritime lien on the vessel
Article 371. Extinction of maritime lien on the vessel
Article 372. Assignment or subrogation of claims
Article 373. Right of retention of a vessel or a vessel under construction

2. MORTGAGE ON A VESSEL OR A VESSEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Article 374. Effecting of a mortgage on a vessel or a vessel under construction
Article 375. Object of the mortgage of a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 376. Registration of a mortgage on a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 377. Procedure for the registration of a mortgage on a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 378. Protection of the interests of the mortgagee of a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 379. Priority of claims arising out of duties secured by a mortgage on vessel or vessel under construction
Article 380. Ranking of claims arising out of duties secured by a mortgage on vessel or vessel under construction
Article 381. Assignment of the mortgage on a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 382. Preservation of a vessel or vessel under construction secured by a mortgage
Article 383. Transfer of the right of ownership of a vessel or vessel under construction or change of registration
Article 384. Grounds for the forced sale of a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 385. Notice of the forced sale of a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 386. Effects of the forced sale of a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 387. Termination of the mortgage on a vessel or vessel under construction

Chapter XXIII. ARREST OF A VESSEL


Article 388. Authority to arrest a vessel
Article 389. Maritime claim
Article 390. Vessel liable to arrest
Article 391. Release of a vessel from arrest
Article 392. Recurring and frequent arrest of a vessel
Article 393. Protection of the shipowner of the arrested vessel

Chapter XXIV. SEA PROTESTS


Article 394. Sea protest
Article 395. Statement of sea protest
Article 396. Period of statement of sea protest
Article 397. Statement of sea protest with delay
Article 398. Statement of sea protest with regard to damage caused to cargo
Article 399. Evidence
Article 400. Drawing up a sea protest document
Article 401. Drawing up of sea protest documents by consular authorities of foreign states

Chapter XXV. CLAIMS AND ACTIONS. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS


1. CLAIMS AND ACTIONSS

Article 402. Attesting of circumstances which may serve the basis for liability of participants in the carriage of goods by sea
Article 403. Claims to the carrier
Article 404. Transfer of the right to make claims and bring actions
Article 405. Procedure for making a claim
Article 406. Time for making a claim arising out of the contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 407. Consideration period of a claim arising out of the contract of carriage of goods by sea

2. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS

Article 408. Limitation period for claims arising out of the contract of carriage of goods by sea
Article 409. Limitation period for other claims
Article 410. Limitation of claims for compensation for damage of oil pollution from vessels and damage in connection with the carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea
Article 411. Application of general limitation periods
Article 412. Suspension of the limitation period in case of general average
Article 413. Interest for the use of another person's funds

Chapter XXVI. APPLICABLE LAW


Article 414. Establishing of law to be applied to relations arising out of merchant shipping with the participation of foreign citizens or foreign legal entities or complicated by a foreign element
Article 415. Right of ownership and other property rights
Article 416. Legal status of members of a vessel's crew
Article 417. Rights to sunken property
Article 418. Relations arising out of merchant shipping contracts
Article 419. General average
Article 420. Relations arising out of collision of vessels
Article 421. Relations arising out of causing damage by oil pollution from vessels
Article 422. Relations arising out of damage caused in connection with carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea
Article 423. Relations arising out of salvage of vessel or other property
Article 424. Maritime lien on a vessel
Article 425. Mortgage on a vessel or vessel under construction
Article 426. Limits of the shipowner's liability
Article 427. International treaties of the Russian Federation

Chapter XXVII. FINAL CLAUSES


Article 428. Entry into force of this Code
Article 429. Application order of the regulations set out in this Code
Article 430. Adjustment of legal acts in conformity with this Code

Taken from http://folk.uio.no/erikro/WWW/HNS/rmc.pdf

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